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Gains derived from the sale of a property in Singapore as it is a capital gain. Profits or losses derived from the buying and selling of shares or other financial instruments (including digital tokens) are generally viewed as personal investments. Payouts from insurance policies as they are capital receipts.

Celestia reduces the problem of block verification to data availability verification, which we know how to do efficiently with sub-linear cost using data availability proofs. These proofs utilise a primitive called erasure codes, which are used in consumer technologies ranging from DVDs to QR codes to satellite communication.

We’re incredibly excited about this vision. If you are too, you can keep up-to-date with developments about Celestia by subscribing to the newsletter on our website, joining our Telegram group, or following our Twitter feed.

When MMT says the only limit to deficit spending and money creation is set by the real resources that can be deployed before hitting an inflation wall of high demand and low supply, it’s basically saying there is no free lunch. But even MMTers arguing in favour of wide government spending untied to current revenues or existing debt recognize there is no free lunch.

Essentially, it is a digital token that can be exchanged electronically. Bitcoins are created and kept track of by a network of computers using mathematical formulas, rather than by a single authority or organisation. It does not exist in physical form.

Bitcoin is not stable. A currency is a reliable store of value, so that you can be sure that the money you have will buy more or less the same amount of things today as it will tomorrow or this time next year. Its value has both skyrocketed and tumbled dramatically within the space of just a few days.

To that end, BNB we’re building the first ever scale-out data availability-focused blockchain: Celestia . At its center is the core mathematical primitive that makes sharding secure: data availability proofs using erasure codes. Using this primitive directly, rather than through sharding, allows the Celestia data availability layer to have the scaling of sharded blockchains for block verification.

It’s also thanks to very cheap and generous flows of credit that oil & gas (espe­cially North American shale) have sucked up more debt than most other sectors and have been able to prop themselves up. Climate overheating has a key a point in common with the explosion of corporate debt over the last decade or so: central banks’ easy monetary policies and governments’ lax fiscal policies.

And even where you can, transactions are slow and expensive. But, in fact, there are very few places where you can pay with bitcoin. If bitcoin were a currency, you could expect to be able to use it widely.

Also on the team is John Adler, a layer two scalability researcher at ConsenSys working on Phase 2 of Ethereum 2.0. He created the first specification for an optimistic rollup scheme, drawing inspiration from Mustafa’s earlier works on data availability.

As then Minister of Finance and future President of France, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, noted in 1965, the power to simply "print" new dollars to finance its spending habits, the dollar standard and by extension the petrodollar system bestowed upon the United States and its currency an "exorbitant privilege" over other countries and currencies — but it’s also been an exorbitant weight, as many have pointed out in the meantime.

Note that unlike existing scale-out designs such as sharding, in Celestia the data throughput of the main chain increases with non-consensus nodes . This leads to an interesting consequence: the more clients you have in the network, the greater the block size (and thus throughput) you can have securely. This is a unique and exciting property, as it means nodes that are not producing blocks can contribute to the throughput and security of the network.

Mining chips, like all microchips, generate heat. In some cases, the ASICs themselves are being integrated inside thermal devices used to heat water or air for home, commercial or industrial uses. As bitcoin mining company Braiins and cleantech adoption expert Magdalena Gronowska have noted, recycled heat from ASIC chips is already being used to climatize homes or for commercial and industrial processes. By placing them inside these devices, ASICs transfer their heat to the water or the air, reducing the amount of electricity or BNB gas needed in the thermal process.

imageIf built on top of a chain specifically engineered from the ground up for data availability, systems like Fuel could easily reach tens or even hundreds of thousands of transactions per second. Fuel Labs recently announced that their implementation of optimistic rollups is nearing completion, pending security audits. Their sidechain will enable an increase in transaction throughput on the order of 50-fold. However even with this impressive increase, it is bottlenecked by the data availability capacity of its base chain, Ethereum.

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